Byzantine Constantinople : the walls of the city and adjoining historical sitesat 639 × 2871 in Submit Proof.
The number of harbours found, at one time or other, on the southern shore of the city formed one of the most striking features of Byzantine Constantinople. This was not due to any natural facilities offered by the shore for this purpose. The outline of the coast is very irregular, it presents no bay where ships may be moored for the convenience of commerce, or into which they can find refuge from storms. The waves, moreover, cast up great quantities of sand upon the beach. Thus, all the harbours on this side of the city were, to a great measure, artificial extensions of some indentation of the coast, and their construction and maintenance involved great labour and expense.