Iraqi Maqam- Intangible Cultural Heritage
Iraqi Maqam is at least four hundred year old genre found in Iraq. The instruments of the ensemble which is used in the Iraqi Maqam, Al-Chalghi al-Baghdadi, includes a qari’ (singer), santur (hammered dulcimer), jawza (spike fiddle), tabla or dunbug/dumbeg, and sometimes riqq (tambourine) and naqqarat (kettle drums). The focus is on the poem sung in classical Arabic or Iraqi dialect (then called zuhayri). A complete maqam concert is known as fasl (plural fusul) and is named after the first maqam: bayat, hijaz, rast, nawa, or husayni. (Touma 1996, p.55, 57)
A typical performance includes the following sections (Touma 1996, p.56):
• tahrir, sometimes badwah
Some well known Iraqi maqam performers include: Mulla Hasan al-Babujachi, Rahmat Allah Shiltagh, Khalil Rabbaz, Rahmain Niftar, Rubin Rajwan, Ahmed Zaydan, Mulla Uthman al-Mawsili, Jamil al-Baghdadi, Salman Moshe, Rashid al-Qundarchi, Yusuf Huresh, Najm al-Shaykhli, Abbas Kambir, Mohammed al-Qubbanchi, Yusuf Omar, Hamed al-Sa‘di, Farida, and Husayn al-A‘dhami.